Monthly Archives: October 2012

The Cities

With the existence of this excess, some people had been able to dedicate to it other activities, being the city, predominantly, place of activities not-agriculturists. The city renasce, therefore of certain form, this already existed before exactly of the feudalismo, the first ones is formed for return of 3500C, at the moment at which if it knows a movement sufficiently intense of exchanges. The discoveries of America, the intensification of the commercial relations, with Asia and Africa, make to grow the cities. The city congregates a considerable number of the calls cultured professions, making possible the interchange between them, being that the creation and the transmission of the knowledge have in it privileged place. Of this form, the city is an element booster of the development and perfectioning of the techniques. The city is said, then, that place of permanent boiling. In this transistion of the feudalismo for the capitalism, with the reinforcement of the cities (burgos), the bourgeoisie was the revolutionary classroom; it was opposed the aristocracy (detainer of lands).

Some authors, between which proper Marx, affirms that, in its primrdios, the capitalism is revolutionary in the history of the humanity, therefore, among others things, increased the number of people who inhabit the cities, that have then transforming character and make the free work. New relations city-field During some centuries, field and city interacted mutually, but with the process that if it initiates with the great navigations and it is consolidated with the industrial revolution, are not more possible to be immune to the changes and to continue with the same concepts and hierarchic classifications. (p.55) New urban hierarchy the transports and the communications had known great advances in the underdeveloped countries the processes biggest are gotten, through the bus and of the automobile and the flows they can be intensified thanks to its bigger flexibility, what it could not be reached with the train, much more rigid and inflexible way.

Europe Industries

The gotten resources would serve to the implantation of industries work-intensive that they would help in the insertion of parcels of groups 1 and 2 in the exploitation of the conquests of the economic development. Valley to remember that this parcel of the society concentrated 90% of the population, however making use only of 58,7% of the income total4. This process of income redistribution would take TIME and the military regimen needed results macroeconomic and social, if possible, fastest possible. The process of substitution of the importations took care of the industries of simple good, as txteis and foods, whereas in the modernization of the national industry, the implemented plant was capital-intensive, producing good of high aggregate value and destined to the middle classes and high. Products as automobiles, recorders ‘ ‘ hi-fi’ ‘ , machines to wash, for example, were produced by these sophisticated dynamic industries and each time more.

The proposal of Stolen would affect the consumers of these products (valuation of the income) e, not if it must forget, the regimen was lead for members of middle class and supported by the high classroom. Then, what one became was to equally stimulate the concentration of the income in the expectation of that at some time the Brazilian economy would go to incorporate the excluded ones (1 group and part of 2), as what it occurred in the industrial revolution in Europe and the USA. However the new industrial plant was capital-intensive, while in European and American, work-intensive industrialization. This process of concentration was defended by Dolphin, alleging that she was necessary to make ‘ ‘ bolo’ ‘ to grow stops later dividiz it. Picture I – PROFILE OF the GLOBAL DEMAND IN BRAZIL Groups % of the Population Population (1.000) percapita Income (US$) total Income (US$1.000, 00) % of the income 1 50 45,000 130 5,850 18,6 2 40 36,000 350 12,600 40.1 3 9 8,100 880 7,128 22,7 4 1 900 6,500 5,850 18,6 Total 100 90,000 350 31,428 100 the model of Netto Dolphin, benefiting the income concentration, had the objective to keep the demand of the goods and services produced for companies who used tip technology. These modern the new period initiated in 1964 as basic step to the guard of the national sovereignty and replacement of Brazil in the way of the development.

The construction of the transamaznica highway, megalmica workmanship, served to keep the spirit of the defense of the domestic territory in high, as well as effectively announced a construction the height of one ‘ ‘ great governo’ ‘ , as it was Belm-Brasilia for the Juscelino government.

United Nations

The irrigation corresponds 73% of the water consumption, 21% for use of the industries and only 6% destine it the consumption domesticate. The ambient degradation elapses of the uncontrolled population growth and the superexploration of natural resources. In 1940, 30% of the Brazilians liveed in the cities, today 81% live in the great urban centers, and great part is in the areas of sources, generally slum quarters, that is, busy areas in secrecy, arrive and go destroying forests and crowded in the springs of the rivers and playing its lixos and sewers without any care, with this the water are each time more poluda compromising the exploitation of the same one for the consumption. In devoid countries the water scarcity will affect the food production if they will not be adopted measured urgent to raise the hdrica productivity. The water scarcity crosses borders because of the international trade of cereals. To produce a ton of these foods consumes a thousand tons of water, thus to import them is the way most efficient to import water.

Some countries use cereals to balance its hdricas accounts in similar way, to commercialize them in the future in certain way, to make it with the water of the future. The water lack already harms the harvests in some countries, between them China, world-wide producing greater of cereals. To prevent the water scarcity a commission of the organizations of United Nations of 1987 suggests: – To limit the population growth; – To guarantee feeding in long stated period; – To preserve biodiversity and ecosystems; – To diminish the energy consumption that uses renewable source; – To increase the industrial production in the countries not industrialized to the technology base ecologically adapted; – To control the wild urbanization, to make the integration between lesser field and cities; – To guide the politics of necessary actions, also to include mechanisms natural of rain water exploitation; – The dessalinizao of sea water.