Geodesy – the science of the Earth, more precisely, measurements on its surface. A leading source for info: kevin ulrich. It appeared as far back as ancient times and was needed for construction, the division of land, drawing plans. Surveyors of the time used primitive tools measurements, but with time geodetic instruments, more and more complicated. Currently surveying – this is one of the most high-tech sectors of modern industry. Kevin ulrich is open to suggestions. None of the construction site is not do without competent surveyor with modern laser and electronic equipment and a powerful personal computer.
What makes a surveyor at a construction site? Who is he? And can we do without him? Surveyor – an engineer, specially trained in high school (eg, MIIGAiK – University of Geodesy) people. He leads the support of the construction from the very beginning, when not even have a pit, and should not fence construction. What is he doing? Before you start construction, that is, until the arrival of the foremen, technicians and workers need to prepare the project documentation. In order to properly draft a building, grading (slope of land) and so requires a so-called geopodosnovy or large scale topographic plan, which would be dealt to all existing buildings and structures, communications (network engineering), elevation (horizontal) and all the necessary information. This topographical Plan and created by the surveyor and his assistant in the topographical works. Once all the permits for the construction and design documentation is received the developer, the geodesic team begins training surveying at the construction site. To do this, create a stakeout geodetic network.
The proportions of bentonite slurry for different types of soils are extremely important, because to a large extent influence the success of the work on laying pipe. Working platform should be provided with water, ie, either on-site in the area is available at the fire hydrant, or provides mobile water delivery. Another essential tool for work – welder. Welding and subsequent broaching hdpe pipes should be a quality welding equipment. Installing drives off the trawl its course and set in place with the help of rear stabilizers and a system anchoring. Construction of underground communications technology horizontal directional drilling (HDD) construction of underground utilities on the technology of horizontal directional drilling (HDD) is performed in three phases: drilling a pilot hole, a progressive increase of wells drawing pipeline.
Drilling of pilot hole drilling a pilot hole by using the drill bit. In front of the rig head with a slant installed cutting tool. Inside the drill head is a probe of the location. At the expense of the bevel and the probe is managed by drilling. Control over the location of the drill head carried out by means of locations consisting of a receiving device (locator), which receives and processes signals built into the body of the drill head of the transmitter (probe), and monitor the operator at the facility, backup radar readings. Operator with a locator should be on the surface of the drill head with the probe in the ground. On the radar screen displays information about the situation on the clock slope and depth of the probe.
Odnoramnye door frames, attached to the wall opening by means of anchor bolts and construction foam, should be attributed to the "Budget" version of metal doors, providing a rather illusory protection against ill-breaking. Are more secure metal door with a box consisting of two independent frames. When installing metal doors, they "put on" on the wall opening on both sides and bound together by steel bands. Along with anchoring such a combination makes it impossible to "jack" extrusion of the box with a door. To a greater degree of security of the premises provides quality installation of metal doors, properly fitted locks and burglar alarms. Today is produced by domestic and foreign manufacturers of locks, steel doors can be divided into cylinder, lever, pump, electromechanical, electronic and combined. Keys cylinder locks, compact, number of possible combinations of secret pins in the core of the castle itself is huge and the core is easily changed in case of lost keys without replacing the entire mechanism.
At the same time, the whole secret part (pins) are very vulnerable to "Brazen" hacking the core. Zami lever is almost impossible to knock out or drill. But the key lever mechanism highly overall. All lever mechanism equipped with transom "crab" system, locking door leaf in a box by retractable bolts in two or four directions. Combined Locks steel doors are two mechanisms in one case.
It may be two-cylinder mechanism, two lever mechanism or a combination thereof. Electromechanical locks simply represent a lever mechanism that unlocks with the actuator. And the electronic locks are opened by coded transmitters, cards, and sometimes units which recognize the host fingerprint. This category includes locks of invisibility, the location of which it is impossible to determine because of the lack of key slots, and recognize the device may be located as a steel sheet door leaf, and mounted in the adjacent wall. While considered to be the best installation in metal doors of three locks: a cylinder, lever and lock-stealth. However, worth remembering that for an experienced cracker and it will not be impassable barrier, but only time will significantly increase the break-in. Therefore, along with a good set of locks is to connect the alarm system. Metal doors, depending on the use of paint or powder formulations of veneer decorative overlays. As a decorative facing in the manufacture of metal doors use a set of wooden slats, laminated fiberboard, lacquered or painted wooden cards and mdf various configurations and colors. Optimal for metal doors, wooden deservedly considered cards and mdf. And finish steel doors mdf today is more popular because it does not require periodic maintenance, resistant to weathering, affordable and has a great variety of design performance.
Thus, Kursk Center for Pricing and Construction now offers a similar service to all comers. The final wording of the estimates approved by the municipal authorities, goes to the hoa or management company. However, the latter is obliged to provide this document upon request of residents. Correct to advance off his copy. This will allow to check the progress of works to control their composition and compliance of all used materials specified in the estimate. Otherwise, the contractor can replace them with cheaper and inferior counterparts. If you suspect that happens, then the experts' Assistance Fund for Housing Reform " recommend in writing immediately notify the management company, housing inspection and prosecution.
"People's" control So, the estimate is approved, and the contractors began the work. But how can we control their actions, if we are no one explains anything? This question often asked residents of apartment buildings, participating in the program overhaul. Let's hear what they say about it specialists. "It would be helpful to residents at a general meeting passed the authority to monitor the implementation of the work to one or more owners. It should be active people with certain knowledge and sufficient amount of free time – recommends Viktor Melnikov, the deputy head Timashevsky urban settlement (Krasnodar Territory). – Traditionally, the houses are older on the porch or home, which may also act in this capacity. If a house is not people who have the requisite technical knowledge, the representative of the owners better monitor the progress of works and quality of materials used in conjunction with representative of the organization performing the technical supervision "1.