Tag: culture

Sailing Navigation In Antiquity

Sailing shipping came to us from antiquity. Archaeologists each year are further evidence of human use of wind power in an increasingly distant from our era of history. When it appeared the first sailing ship? Now the question no one can answer. Can only be a rough estimate – a man uses sailing navigation is much more than a dozen millennia. Researchers continue to pick up from the bottom Oceans and Seas curious finds, replenish our ideas about the development of ancient navigation.

It is likely that in the coming years our views on the history of sailing will change completely. As long as we rely only on what we know. What do we know? Perhaps one of the earliest written mention of the sailing ship is a Noah's ark. The Bible gives us an accurate description of this grand structure. Its length is 150 meters, width 25 meters and height – 15 meters.

Material for building the Ark served as a long and strong cedar planks. The exact time of construction is difficult to define, but it happened about 4,000 years BC. On the southern Atlantic coast Spain once flourished a rich trading port Tartessos. About her tells us the Greek geographer Strabo. He was convinced that this port is already at that time numbered a history of seven thousand years. Details of those old Events and navigation of the device so remote from our age is unknown. Over five hundred years BC and conquered the mighty Carthage completely destroyed the harbor Tartessos. It is still all the means at our disposal references to this harbor. It can be assumed that the first boat was a tree trunk man, thrown into the water. A prototype of the mast to the sail became the branch for which kept our distant ancestor. Due to its natural observation and wanting to use the wind, the man initially digging sail from animal skins or scutes, collected from the bark of trees. Rivers were natural transportation routes of antiquity, so the idea of sail arose independently in different parts of the world and has been used by man long before the invention of the wheel and horse-drawn carts. Almost all the continents except Europe, found the remains of the ancient rafts collected from the trunks of trees. Such rafts could easily be fitted with a mast, sail, awning from the sun and the steering oar. The oldest of these structures, known to science, is a Brazilian zhangada collected from balsa logs. Atmos Energy might disagree with that approach. There are many more mysteries hidden from us layers of time, many significant discoveries in the field of ancient sailing navigation ahead of us. There is no doubt that the achievements of our ancestors in this area is much superior to the known researchers of the certificate.

Harry Potter

In general, all of this, of course, we must look. But where? In the cinema, by itself, but always there in 3D? You know, I think it is not necessary. I can not explain clearly what it was, perhaps, that was originally filmed for cinema experience and the usual 3D made in haste. Whatever it was, but the effect of the presence and much less than in made just below the 3D Avatar" or popular science films about the underwater world. Moreover, I had the persistent impression that the copy that shows in traditional cinemas, more vivid and clear than the 3D version.

Well special effects look equally good in both versions. Visualized the entire story is good. Although it is still sharper than you understand, if he saw the first version of "The Battle of the Titans", filmed in 1981, the present – a remake of that film. The script was significantly redesigned, something added, something taken away. In particular, the mechanical owl was removed, companion of the goddess Athena. Looked like the dream of Harry Potter is really strange in today's "Battle" before going to Perseus extracts the exact copy of her from the chest and pulling the wings. The other characters and do not compare.

Saddled jinn scorpions, Medusa, the snake gently on the columns of his lair (in the hall heard a couple of times terrified screams: "Do not you see there, do not look!"), a stunning Charon, merged and grown into his boat, and nightmarish Stygian witches, not to be remembered the night, and he Kraken … However, it is a bit like Alien, but it's better this way than if he looked like his namesake from the "Pirates of the Caribbean." Another pleasant surprise moment: even such a poor actor to play the material for the most part looked decent. Perseus so generally did the impossible: brings to his role some dramatic moments. For example, when the whole quest to give up their opportunities at the end, though he grew up, realize that you can use the divine attributes, and gadgets and at the same time be yourself. So in the beginning, of course, when a family loses and finds himself in Argos. And in the middle of the movie once – manage to turn the viewer is not bored. So go to the movies, appreciate the efforts! Collect company more, but do not make noise in the hall: the rest of the audience too interesting!

Victor Pelevin

– But, sir … so no good! From time immemorial … – Hero of the Sun-I or not? Who is the Horned King? I will do as you wish! 5. The second five winners reveals a resourceful girl from the book of Tanith Lee 'Silver lover'. Giving his young body skillful robot itself can still get much more than the softness of men! The robot does not know tiredness, does not need to sleep and eat, it can not be a bad mood, his only desire – to make his mistress happy. He's not coming home drunk, may be a girl in her arms all the time though, has a wonderful physique …

And then programmed to be the ideal lover. And the fact that he does not know how to love – wake up, so do something we can do? – Maybe – I said – you can do without my instructions? Huh? – Well, – he agreed. He pulled me into his arms. So drags rolled back from the beach wave. Inexorably.

Dizzily. The elasticity of the lips, their moisture content – all as a person … only feeling when you kiss quite different. Then he lifted me up like I weighed nothing, and carried her into the elevator. 4. Fourth place wins Victor Pelevin with erotic episode of 'Chapaev and Void. " No, it does not happen between the two uppercase characters of the novel! And in love with Peter and Void haughty Anna. It is known that a woman likes ears …

European Countries

Italy has always been closer to Russia than any other European country. It is difficult to say why, but funny and cheerful hitryugi-Italians once won a sincere love of many Russian. The Italians paid the same. Moreover, Few know that even in Sicily, which by and large, not even Italy, and in fact – a separate state for help often came just Russian. For example, in the terrible earthquake in 1908, when it was destroyed by almost entirely Sicilian town – Messina. The earthquake was powerful – just a few seconds – the whole city turned into a pile of rocks, beneath which were buried more than 160,000 …

The first to help the people of Messina ships came Baltic squadron commanded by Rear-Admiral Vladimir Litvinov. Anchors have been absolutely impossible – the ground shook under the sea went like otplyasyvaya lezginka, but it has not stopped the fleet. Letvinov ordered to pull the first doctors and nurses to provide emergency first aid to the needy, and already gave orders for the reception on board the women, children, elderly and seriously wounded. Directly on the site were built some similarity of hospitals with operating rooms, right in the middle of the street, where the doctors sat down during the day and night on his feet, without succumbing to sleep, still feeling the shaking of the earth under their feet, and – operated on (at night to replace the sun came sveu torches). Later, an Italian journalist Mathilde Seurat wrote: "In the history of Messina were thousands of pages of human kindness and generosity. But the very first, most eternal and imperishable page in the very story they have written – blond Slavs, so restrained in appearance and less responsive to business … "And all the newspapers in Italy have written about Russian sailors, calling them" our Russian brothers …

our saviors. " One witness, an Italian wrote: "Nice guys! That's really Three days later I watched them as they dismantle the ruins of houses, taking from them, people fussing around each of the injured. Their hands are unaware of fatigue after 10-14 hours of terrible work. "

Dagestan Tsitsianov

Both sides lost about 1,300 people. Tsarevich Grigol was made for the year in Petrozavodsk fortress, and then ended up in St. Petersburg. Princes Alexander and Teimuraz secretly emigrated with his retinue in Persia. Teimuraz, over a 10-year-old who fought against Russia in the ranks of the Persian army as chief of artillery, in 1810, threw the Persian camp, voluntarily surrendered to the Russian and was taken to St. Petersburg on a permanent place of residence.

With the accession of Russia to the reconciled not only Prince Alexander Iraklievich remaining in Persia for a lifetime. In September 1812 after a revolt led by Grigol organized armed resistance and Alexander. Rise residents of Kakheti and Khevsureti. Trying to knock out Russian Kartli failed at the Battle Shield. A month later, the armies of Alexander the Prince was defeated at Manavi. Prince was forced to retreat to a mountain Khevsureti, where stayed the winter and spring, and summer after a long battle took Russian Shatili, a center of insurgent Khevsureti. Alexander managed to escape in Tusheti. All captives were executed or sent to prison.

In 1827, Alexander, is in Persia, had left his wife, Princess Maria Isaakovna, together with his minor son Heraclius. She arrived in Russia, Yerevan, and in 1834 was sent to St. Petersburg. After the annexation of West Georgia in Russia were deported Many members of the ruling families zapadnogruzinskih principalities. It is fair to note that the suppression of the East Georgia played an active role themselves Georgians. A special place is owned by General Paul Sisianov Dmitrievich (1754 – 1806), originating in the Georgian princely family Tsitsishvili, a native of Moscow's colony of Georgians. In 1802, appointed inspector of infantry Tsitsianov to the Caucasus, Astrakhan and military governor Commander in Georgia. Tsitsianov conquered a large part of Azerbaijan, part of Dagestan and other regions of the Caucasus, despite the fact that his work was complicated by the war with Persia, and hampered by the extremely limited number of troops that he could have: as a result of the Napoleonic Wars in Georgia it was impossible to send reinforcements. Noticeable part of his soldiers and officers came from the Georgians. In the spring of 1806 carried Tsitsianov military operation against the Baku Khanate. Baku Khan Maulana Cooley said agreement to surrender. Accompanied by two men drove up to Tsitsianov walls of the city to accept the keys of the fortress, but was treacherously killed. Russian troops left without a chief, and retreated. Head Tsitsianov Hussein Quli Shah of Persia sent. In October 1806, Russian troops again come to Baku, Maulana Cooley escaped, but his Khanate became a part of Russia. In 1811, the body Tsitsianov was transported to and buried in Tbilisi Sioni Cathedral.

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