Background. Lathes are machining the internal and external surfaces of the workpieces such as bodies of revolution. By the way, turning operations occupy the largest share of the overall complex machining. On CNC lathes vypolyayut following operations: turning, drilling, tapping chisels, etc. Classify the machines can be on the following criteria: location 1.Po spindle axis (horizontal and vertical machines); 2.Po number of instruments used in this work (one-and mnogoinstrumentalnye machines); 3.Po method of attachment tool (on the caliper, a turret, in-store instruments); 4.Po view of works (post, chuck, chuck-center, carousel, rod machines); 5.Po degree of automation (semi-automatic and automatic). Pivot machines used for machining parts such as shafts with straight and curved contours. On these machines can cut thread cutter on the program.
Cartridge machines are designed for drilling, deployment, tapping in the axial holes of parts, cog wheels, possibly a chisel cutting the inner and outer thread of the program. Chuck-center machines combine the capabilities of turning pivot cartridge and CNC machines and are used for exterior and internal processing of various parts such as bodies of revolution. Rotary machines are used for machining of complex cases. CNC lathes are fitted with turret or tool magazine. Turrets can be four, six, and dvenadtsatipozitsionnye, and at each position can be installed on two tools for external and internal machining of the workpiece. The axis of rotation of the head can be positioned in different positions relative to the spindle axis.
Fixing turret is done by using special socket joints, which provide high accuracy and rigidity of fixation of the head. In the groove turrets installed replacement power tools, which set out the size of the machine on special devices, which significantly increases productivity and accuracy. Typically, for turning processing is used no more than 7-8 instruments. Enhancing the technological capabilities lathes can be accomplished by obliterating the distinction between turning and milling machines, adding various additional operations such as milling (ie, programmed spindle rotation).